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Deped RO-V is looking for a PROGRAMMER who can develop and maintain DOCUMENT TRACKING SYSTEM.


Regional Director


         It is with pleasure that I wish extend my congratulations to the 2015 graduates of Bicol Region!

         Your completion of basic education is an affirmation of your commitment to place premium on the long-term benefits of education which can be reinforced if you will embark  on yet another journey that will take you a step higher to the realization of your goals in life. The truth is, your educational flight has just started; and we hope that your school communities have equipped you with the appropriate knowledge, skills  and attitudes that will help you along. We pray that the quality of education that you have been given in your years of study have transformed you into dynamic, open-minded and resolute individuals who are ready to face the many challenges that still  lie ahead.

         This year’s theme, Saktong Buhay: Sa De-Kalidad na Edukasyon Pinanday, is reflective of the Department of Education’s thrust to uphold and enhance quality education in order to be able to produce learners like you  who are skillfully prepared to take on tasks that will bring you closer to your aspiration of a better life, not only for yourself but for others. We are happy that you have benefitted from the substantial educational investments that our organization  has instigated to ensure that you are given the excellent kind of learning that you deserve.

         I urge you to never lose sight of your aspirations, and be inspired by the thought that you have the potential to do more and be more  in life. Cultivate your personal capabilities, and always be driven by excellence and the promise of a better life made possible through the pursuit of quality education.

         I thank the parents, teachers, and stakeholders who have linked together, bringing into fruition the realization of our learners' young dreams of reaching this much-awaited occasion of their graduation.



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DepEd RO V conducts investigation on the complaint for an alleged
impersonation during the 2015 Palarong  Bicol

Legazpi City – The Department of Education Regional Office V, through the Regional Screening  and Accreditation Committee (RSAC) conducted an investigation on March 23, 2015 relative to the complaint filed by DepEd – Division of Albay dated March 20, 2015 against a pupil athlete of DepEd – Division of Camarines Sur alleging impersonation  and praying for the nullification of the results in Athletics Boys (Elementary).

DepEd RO V warns teacher-applicants against extortionists

         LEGAZPI CITY - The Department of Education Regional Office V (DepEd RO V) warns the public especially teacher-applicants  to be cautious of people offering and promising teaching positions in exchange for money.

Bicol SPAs excel in nat’l journ training

"If you want to produce good products, you have to be a good coach."

         These were the words of  Anna Marie San Diego, Education Program Specialists  II of the Curriculum and Development Division of the Bureau  of Secondary Education during the recently concluded National Training of Trainers for Campus Journalism (Luzon Group) held at the Queen Margarette Hotel in Lucena City last January 20 to 23, 2015.

Albay tops 2015 RSPC

         Gathering coveted points in the Regional Schools Press Conference held at Daet, Camarines Norte on January 12-15, 2015, Albay Division retained its championship slot when it posted a total of 319 points via winnings in the individual and group  events, school paper competition and search for outstanding school paper advisers and campus journalists, in both elementary and secondary levels.

13 DEPED Reg V  high school students  set off to
Japan – East Asia Network of Exchange
for Students and Youth (JENESYS)

         DepEd RO V (Bicol) thirteen (13) third and fourth year high school students, ages 15-18 years old, are delegates to the 2014-2015 Japan-East Asia Network of Exchange For students and Youth (JENESYS) in partnership with Japan International Cooperation  Center (JICE), as part of the Philippines-Japan Student Exchange Program. DepEd Region V has successfully sent delegates in three batches to this laudable Japanese Government Educational Programme for the youth in the ASEAN member states.

Dads share reading task with moms

         Tabaco City – While reading to children is commonly viewed as a women’s territory, in Tabaco City more males are getting involved in reading to children.  Leading the group was Police Superintendent Felix Survita of Tabaco City Philippine  National Police who read to a Grade III class of Tabaco North Central Elementary School.  Reading in other schools were the City Vice Mayor and eight City Councilors, School Heads, and the City Accountant, Mr. Luis Melgar.

RD Abcede urges stakeholders to rally behind the last, lost learners

         "If we want to to elevate the performance level of our Region, let us give priority to the 25 percent of our pupils who are considered to be the last and the lost. These are  the learners who need most of our attention."

SNHS scribe bags essay writing award

         Sorsogon City- senior student of the Sorsogon National High School bagged the first place in the secondary category  of Third Bicol Essay Competition provincial elimination for Sorsogon, sponsored by the Municipal Government of Daet, Camarines Norte and the Philippine Coconut Authority through the Department of Education.

DepEd ROV, DENR ROV spearhead
Special Patents Confab

         “It was supposed an impossible a dream but it turned out there is a beacon hope.”

         This was the message of Engr. Pedro L. Noble, Regional Technical Director for Lands, when the latter was invited to shed light on the  tedious process of availing Special Patents for Public Schools within Region V on October 23, 2014 pursuant to an Unnumbered Memorandum dated October 7, 2014 which was held at the DepEd-Regional Education and Learning Center (RELC).

DepEd RO V Statement on the Death of
Ms. Roda De Vera Fortes,
Teacher I of Sta. Cruz ES, Barcelona, Sorsogon

         The Department of Education Region V deeply mourns the untimely death of Ms. Roda De Vera Fortes, a Teacher I of Sta. Cruz Elementary School, Barcelona District, Division of Sorsogon. Ms. Fortes was a hard-working teacher and an efficient public servant.  She was constantly doing her best to contribute to the school’s goal of achieving academic excellence.

DepEd RO V celebrates World Teachers’ Day, honors exemplary teachers and retirees

Legazpi City - In its aim of achieving better performance along management, supervision, and services of the regional office personnel and in line with the celebration of the National Teachers’ Month, DepEd Regional Office V holds the celebration  of World Teachers’ Day cum Conference on Upgrading Competencies in a Gender-Sensitive Workplace at The Concourse Convention Hall, Legazpi City last September 29, 2014.

Reading gets a boost in evacuation centers

         Tabaco City - It is reading time!  With or without formal classrooms, reading goes on in Tabaco City.

         No less than Schools Division Superintendent, Mrs. Cecille Bernadette P. Rivera led the reading of a story to pupils of Mayon Elementary School, one of the eight evacuation centers in Tabaco City on October 3, 2014.

2014 World Food Day Regionwide On-The-Spot Mosaic Making Contest
By: Christie L. Alvarez
DepEd ROV, Legazpi City

         The United Nations declared 2014 as the International Year of Family Farming (IYFF) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in collaboration with Governments, International Development Agencies, farmers’ organizations and other relevant  organizations of the United Nations system, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations, is facilitating its implementation with the following objectives:

Abot-Alam Program: 100% Commitment to Every Filipino’s Education

By: Dr. Evangeline Alcantara-Saculo
Asst. Chief, Alternative Learning Systen/OIC Chief, Field Technical Assistance (FTAD)
DepEd Regional Office V, Legazpi City

         Very recently, the Department of Education announced the implementation of the Abot-Alam Program via DepEd Order No. 17, s. 2014. Abot-Alam, as explained in the document,   is a convergence program that is being undertaken by a consortium of various national government agencies, and non-government organizations (NGOs) and institutions under the leadership of DepEd and the National Youth Commission  (NYC).  It is a national strategy to locate the out-of-school youth (OSY) nationwide who are 15 to 30 years old and who have not completed basic/higher education or who are unemployed, and to mobilize and harmonize programs which will address the OSY's needs  and aspirations.

Is One’s Course Preference Determined by NCAE Results
By: Ana Lisa P. Baluis
Secondary School Teacher III
Pag-asa National High School
Legazpi City

         Doubts and presumptions are cleared when the subject hovers within one’s experience, this, I realized upon my exercise  of maternal obligation. My motherhood has brought me to ponder on the question of how reliable NCAE results are in the course preference among college entrants. How does it affect the choice of a career among college freshmen?

         National College Assessment Examination (NCAE) is administered to Third Year students aimed at guiding  them in their course preference as they enter college life. This program was conceptualized to prepare high school students in selecting a college course that would best fit them. One of the reasons for a declining economy is the so called "misfits" in  the world of work and the government has found a way of escalating it through the administration of this NCAE. Misplaced workers, unemployment and underemployment arise from the wrong choice of course among college students. With this, NCAE was given  birth to guide college entrants in their course preference.

First Batch of Region V JENESYS 2.0 Exchange Students
Scholars will be sent to Japan

        In partnership with the Japan International Cooperation Center (JICE), the implementing agency of JENESYS 2.0,  the Department of Education will be sending its first batch of students to Japan on September 8-16, 2014.

         Four out of five applicants of the Bicol Region qualified the National Level Screening held at Tagaytay International  Convention Center on July 4, 2014. Twenty-five (25) out of 34 Luzon student applicants were selected, 9 from Visayas and 12 from Mindanao. Francia U. Biescas of San Jose National High School, Malilipot, Albay; Keila T. Abarientos of Naga City  School of Arts and Trades, Naga City; Alvin B. Realingo of Pag-asa National High School, Legazpi City and John Oliver B. Rubi of Concepcion Pequeña National High School, Naga City will be part of the Philippine Delegation to the First Batch  of JENESYS 2.0 to be sent to Japan. Round trip international air tickets, food and accommodation will be arranged for free by JICE.

Be Prepared!

         "Be Prepared" is an Elton John’s song from the 1994 Disney animated film and 1997 Broadway musical The  Lion King.

         Elementary and secondary schools all over the country will once more mark the annual Nutrition Month or "Buwan ng Nutrisyon".

         As mandated by the National Nutrition Council (NNC), the theme for this year’s celebration is "Kalamidad paghandaan: Gutom at malnutrisyon agapan!"   The 40 th Nutrition Month campaign focuses on nutrition in emergencies.

Escudero foundation launch search for outstanding teachers of Sorsogon

         Aimed to honor and give special recognition to teachers who manifest profound commitment to the development of the youth through exemplary competence,  remarkable dedication to their work and effective educational leadership, the Salvador H. Escudero III Foundation has organized the Search for Outstanding Teachers of Sorsogon (SOTS) this school year 2013-2014.

Literacy Coordinating Council launches 2014 National Literacy Awards

         The Department of Education (DepEd) through the Literacy Coordinating Council (LCC) recently launched the 2014  National Literacy Awards (NLA) in the Bicol Region at the Regional Educational Learning Center (RELC), Rawis, Legazpi City on March 4, 2014.

DepEd ROV intensifies advocacy campaign for the Early Registration Day

         Armed with the desire to ensure that parents all over Bicol Region will come out and enrol their children for school entry in School Year 2014-2015 during the scheduled Early Registration Day on January 25, 2014, OIC-Regional Director Ramon  Fiel G. Abcede has directed the Division Offices to intensify the advocacy campaigns in their respective localities.

Basic Education Sector raises issues, concerns on SHS implementation

         Participants in the Basic Education Cluster raised significant concerns relative to the implementation of Senior High School Program during the parallel session held as part of  the Regional Higher Education Summit in The Oriental Hotel, Legazpi City, November 14, 2013.

Survey reveals students, parents’ interests
perked up by SHS

         In a survey conducted among 78, 451 students from public schools and 10,710 students from private schools in the Region as to their preference for Senior High School field of specialization, it was revealed that 36,027 (public) and 5,956 (private) are  interested to enrol in academic track; 30,784 (public) and 3,372 (private) wish to be immersed in technical-vocational track, while the remaining 11, 640 (public) and 1,382 (public) are into sports and arts track.

RD Abcede explores preparations, challenges of SHS

         "By far, the Regional and Division Offices of DepEd Region V were able to orient school officials, organized the division and school Senior High School Implementation Teams, launched advocacy campaigns, conducted consultative conferences with stakeholders,  coordinated with other government agencies, benchmarked SHS pilot implementers, formulated action plans and strengthened the Career Guidance Program."

DepEd Region V Stockroom Gutted by Fire, None Hurt

         A fire incident occurred in the Supply Office stockroom located on the ground floor of the Payroll Services Unit (PSU) Building on Friday amidst the impending threat   of Typhoon Yolanda, gutting used athletic equipment, condemned printers, unserviceable computers, office supplies, and other materials. The fire turned most of the used athletic equipment into smoke and ash before it was put out by the firefighters within   fifteen (15) minutes after they arrived at the fire scene.

DepEd Bicol to send Assessment Team to Samar

         Intent to help DepEd Central Office to craft timely, relevant and appropriate action plans to address  the needs of the affected school communities hit by Super Typhoon Yolanda in Visayas, DepEd Region V will dispatch an Assessment Team to the province of Samar tomorrow, November 12, 2013.

Regional EPS is 2013 CSC Pagasa Awardee

         For upholding the ideals of excellence, professionalism and integrity in public service,  Lynn Zuñiga-Padillo,  a Regional Education Supervisor from DepEd Region V, was conferred the much-coveted CSC PAGASA AWARD (Individual Category) by His Excellency President Benigno S. Aquino III, represented by Honorable Executive Secretary Paquito N. Ochoa Jr., in this year  ?s Honor Awards of the Civil Service Commission (CSC) held at the Heroes Hall, Malacañan Palace on October 24, 2013, 10:00 in the morning.

RSSSEAU, PHILSPADA to coach SPED advocates

         On December 6-8, 2013, education advocates for the differently abled learners will troop to Tabaco National High School, Tabaco City, for the Live-out Regional Training of  Trainors, Technical and Classification Seminar for the Differently Abled Persons.

RO to equip division key personnel with  TA skills

         DepEd Regional Office No. V will initiate a capability-building activity among key persons in the 13 divisions through a Regional Training-Workshop on Technical Assistance  for School-Based Management and Managing the K to 12 Teaching and Learning this November, 2013 in cluster venues.

Info officers to undergo rigid training

         Armed with the desire to better facilitate news and information processing in the 13 divisions in Bicol Region, the Regional Office will spearhead a three-day live-in training-workshop  for the Division Information Officers at Regional Educational Learning Center (RELC) Function Hall on November 4-6, 2013.

School drop out dips in Region V

         The Region’s efforts in curtailing the drop out rate in the elementary and secondary schools for the past years through advocacy and awareness campaigns, implementation  of school-initiated interventions and Alternative Delivery Modes are finally paying off as the latest figures on last school year’s drop out rate were revealed.

DepEd ROV cheers Brigada Eskwela Best School Implementers

         Inspired by the gruelling efforts exerted by elementary and secondary schools all over the Region in compliance with the strict implementation of Brigada Eskwela 2013, also known  as the National Schools Maintenance Week on May 20-25, 2013, DepEd Region V launched the search for this year’s Brigada Eskwela Best School Implementers.

DepEd RO V basketball team bags championship cup
by: Dario I. Cabanela,

         Being declared as Over-all Champion was a dream come true for DepEd RO V Basketball Team.

         Besting three other teams, it was the very first time that the Region’s players made it to the top. They were able to win two straight games. After defeating team C  in their first game, DepEd RO V occupied the slot for the winner’s bracket.       

Nutrition Month 2013 underscores need for concerted actions to reduce hunger, malnutrition

by: Christie L. Alvarez

         This year’s Nutrition Month celebration focuses on the theme "Gutom at malnutrisyon,  sama-sama nating wakasan! (Hunger and malnutrition, together let us end!)."

         The theme underscores the need for concerted multi-stakeholder action to reduce hunger and malnutrition.

         The whole nation celebrates the month of July as the Nutrition Month pursuant to Section 7 of Presidential Decree 491, known as the Nutrition Act of the Philippines. It designates  the month of July as Nutrition Month to create greater awareness among the public on the importance of nutrition.

A new home, a better future for RR pupils
by: Catalina P. Garcia

"You will never do anything in this world without courage." AristotleThis principle  inspired  Pilar II Central School family to come up with a Reading Recovery Room, which they transformed from an abandoned and restricted comfort room.

Region V's Reading Recovery Program
after three years

by: Catalina P. Garcia

         One of the reasons why a child is inferior to other children is the possibility that  the child  has learning difficulties that hinder him to be with the group. This premise was proven to be true after three-year implementation of Reading Recovery in the region.

Region V holds training workshop
on the rights of women

by: Francisco B. Bulalacao, Jr.

         THE REGIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOP ON WOMEN’S RIGHTS: A RIGHT-BASED APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT, a three day training workshop, was held at the Regional Educational Training  Center (RELC),  Rawis, Legaspi City, on April 4, 2013. The training was launched pursuant to Regional Memorandum No. 58, s 2013.

NEAP RV (Bicol) Team takes part in Capability Building
Program on T & D; Region V ahead in T & D System
by Jocelyn O. Dy
Education Program Supervisor, NEAP-Bicol

         DepED Region V remains steadfast in its commitment to strengthen the human resource development through its training arm, the National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP)-Bicol.

         Proof of this was the participation of three members of the NEAP-RV (Bicol) team, Celedonio B. Balderas, Jr., Susan S. Collano and Jocelyn O. Dy to the National Capability-Building Program on  Training and Development (T&D) for Regional NEAP Team members at the Boy Scouts of the Philippines Baden Powell International Hotel in Makiling, Los Banos, Laguna on January 14-18, 2013.

First SPS meet held
by: Dario I. Cabanela, EPS II, Sports

         The Department of Education Regional Office No.5 through the Task Force on Sports spearheaded the 1st ever Regional SPS Meet at the Camarines Sur National High School, Division  of Naga City on January 10-12, 2013.

Usec. Quijano bats for advancement of research;
bares K to 12 thrusts
by: Joan L. Lagata

Educational researches contribute to the ability of schools and education agencies to deliver high quality education to all.

         This was underscored by Usec. Yolando S. Quijano, Deped Undersecretary for Programs and Projects, to the 1, 102 research enthusiasts from all over the country who attended the opening program of the First National Research Conference on K to 12 Education  hosted by DepEd Bicol at Villa Caceres Hotel, Naga City on December 12, 2012, 2:00 in the afternoon.

DepED Bicol, BASS sponsor research confab
by: Joan L. Lagata

         Recognizing educational research as an important tool in developing a cadre of reflective educational practitioners who pursue better educational outcomes, the Department of Education Regional Office No. V, in coordination with the Bicol Association of  Schools Superintendents (BASS), is hosting the First National Research Conference on K to 12 Education with the theme, "Nurturing a Culture of Research for Effective K to 12 Education Outcomes," on December 12-14, 2012 at Villa Caceres Hotel, Naga City.

Usec. Quijano to grace NRCKE opening
by: Joan L. Lagata

         Approximately 500 participants from all over the country are expected to gather at Villa Caceres Hotel in Naga City for the First National Research Conference on the K to 12 Education  on December 12-14, 2012.

         Hon. Yolanda S. Quijano, Undersecretary for Programs and Projects of DepEd, Central Office, is the guest speaker in the opening program on December 12, 1:30 in the afternoon.  The undersecretary will be introduced by the Conference Convener and Regional Director of DepEd Region V, Orfelina O. Tuy.

Budget and Finance Division of DepEd Region V
conducts training/workshop on the roll-out
of the Budget Monitoring System (BMS)

by: ROY T. BAÑAS, Administrative Officer II (BFD)/
Executive Assistant – Designateto the Director IV and the Director III

         The Department of Education in its effort to facilitate the preparation, review, consolidation and submission of Budget Accountability Reports (BARs) and other financial reports  to the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) and other oversight agencies within the prescribed deadline, a three-cluster training/workshop was conducted to all the implementing units of DepEd Region 5 through the help of experts from the Budget Division  of the Financial and Management Service (FMS), DepEd Central Office in cooperation with the Budget and Finance Division of DepEd Region V on the use of MS Access-Based Budget Monitoring System (BMS) at RELC, Rawis, Legazpi City from October 22-27, 2012  pursuant to DepEd Memorandum No. 133, s. 2012 dated July 27, 2012 signed by Hon. Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC, DepEd Secretary and as embodied in the Regional Memorandum No. 120, s. 2012 dated September 27, 2012 issued by Dir. Orfelina O. Tuy, CESO IV, Director  IV.

Director Tuy turns 64
by: Dr. Regida N. Vibar, Ed. D.
Chief PESSD Region V

         Director Orfelina O. Tuy, CESO IV, celebrated her birthday on September 7, 2012 at RELC Function Hall, Rawis, Legazpi City. The simple party was tendered by the division/section and unit chiefs and assistant chiefs with their respective staffs, after  the  3rd Quarterly Performance Review, spearheaded by ARD Diosdado M. San Antonio, Ph.D.

Marilyn "Amy" Marco, EPS II, Science
returns to Cam Sur

by: Dr. Regida N. Vibar, Ed. D.
Chief PESSD Region V

         Mrs. Marilyn V. Marco, a highly efficient and effective Science supervisor went back to Camarines Sur per assignment Order of the Regional Director, to serve as the OIC, Assistant  Schools Division Superintendent of Camarines Sur effective September 17, 2012.

Alay para sa kabataan ngayon
by: Dr. Regida N. Vibar, Ed. D.
Chief PESSD Region V

         Ang Department of Education (DepED) mayroong panukala na batay sa DepED Order No. 74, s. 2009 at binigyan ng buhay ng DepED Order No. 31, s. 2012 sa pagpasunod ng K to 12  Basic Education Curriculum. Inumpisahan noong nakaraang taon sa pag papasunod ng Kinder Education na inobliga ang mga paaralan sa publikong eskwelahan na gamitin ang Sariling Wika na ginagamit ng bata sa kani-kanilang tahanan sa pag-aral ng mga aralin  sa loob ng klasrum.

NEAP-Bicol launches series of
capability-building activities

by: Jocelyn O. Dy
Education Program Supervisor, NEAP-Bicol

         As DepED Region V steps up efforts to align priority programs and projects in the region, it also intensifies its efforts to ensure that the policies and standards set by DepED Central Office are achieved through the initiative of its strong  training arm, the National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP) - Bicol.

Palihan sa pananaliksik, itinaguyod ng DEPED
by: Mierna J. Abayon

         Nagsagawa ng Panrehiyong, Palihan sa Pananaliksik na itinaguyod ng Secondary Education Division (SED), Elementary Education Division (EED), Panrehiyong Samahan ng mga Tagamasid  sa Filipino (PASATAF) at National Educators Academy of the Philippines (NEAP-BICOL), ng Kagawaran ng Edukasyon, Rehiyon V (Bicol), Rawis, Lungsod ng Legazpi, noong Setyembre 20-22, 2012, sa RELC Conference Hall, DepED, Lungsod ng Legazpi.

Paper advisers, campus scribes tutored
on school paper production
by: Joan L. Lagata

The essence of campus journalism lies in the production of the school paper. Thus, every elementary school in Bicol Region that claims to promote campus journalism should  regularly produce quality and relevant school paper for the school and community.

         This was the underlying principle that inspired DepEd Bicol and the Bicol Association of Elementary School Paper Advisers to conduct a three-day Regional Training of Elementary School Paper Advisers and Campus Editors on School Paper Production  at RELC Conference Hall, Legazpi City, September 5-7, 2012.

Region meets division overseers
by: Joan L. Lagata

         It was a gathering intended to draw together the best and brightest program implementers in the 13 divisions in Bicol Region.

         Appropriately dubbed as Unified Regional Planning Conference for Elementary and Secondary Education Program Supervisors and SBM Supervisors, the two-day conference held at Regional Educational Learning Center, Rawis, Legazpi City on September  3-4, 2012 convened the regional and division education program supervisors and coordinators to strategically attain increased academic performance in Bicol Region through unified programs and projects that will appropriately address the needs in the field.

DEPED ROV and RASISPA conducted regional training of SPA teachers
By Francisco B. Bulalacao, Jr.

         Department of Education Regional Office and the Regional Association of Schools Implementing the Special Program in the Arts (RASISPA) sponsored a four-day Regional Training of  SPA Teachers held at RELC, Rawis, Legazpi City which culminated last September 2, 2012. Attended by 63 participants from the Regional lead school, schools with SPA curriculum and schools intending to offer the curriculum, the activity is aimed to provide  a common understanding of the language of arts, equip participants with principles of authentic arts creation reflecting the local arts and culture and hone one’s capability in creating and teaching culture based arts.

DEPED Region V holds citizenship advancement
training of trainers in public safety

by: Francisco B. Bulalacao, Jr.

         The Department of Education Regional Office No. 5 conducted the Citizenship Advancement Training of Trainers in Public Safety at the RELC, Conference Hall, Rawis, Legazpi  City on August 9-11, 2012.

7 bicolano artists aualified to the NAMCYA regional competitions
by: Francisco B. Bulalacao, Jr.

         DepED Region V, a consistent winner in the annual National Music Competitions for Young Artists (NAMCYA), had qualified seven young artists who will compete  in the Regional Center Competitions (Semi-Final Levels) at the University of the Philippines, College of Music, Diliman, Quezon City on Saturday, September 29, 2012.

Learning and living , the ALS way
by: Cynthia D. Jacob

         Rita* woke up early that morning of May 20, 2012, without much prodding from her mother. She was excited, and it showed from her elated face, that broke into a broad smile when the jeepney that was to fetch her blew its horn from outside  the window. She hurriedly bid her parents goodbye, and rushed out of their small house, with a big bag in tow.

Making a dream into a reality through the ALS
(An updated report on Jennifer B. Guevarra, 2005 A&E Test Passer)
by: Dr. Roger Torres Lustestica, Jr. ALSD Chief

         Jennifer has always dreamed of becoming a teacher but this seemed to be an unrealistic goal because she was not able to complete Secondary Education. In August 2004, Jennifer  enrolled in the ALS A&E Secondary Level at Barangay Cabasan, Cagraray Island, Bacacay, Albay. She took the A&E Test given in February 2005 held at Malabog National High School, Daraga, Albay and was one of the successful passers.  

Camarines Norte & Naga City win BALS awards
by: Dr. Roger Torres Lustestica, Jr. ALSD Chief

         The National Congress for OSY Learners was conducted at Teacher’s Camp, Baguio City last April 11-13, 2012 with its theme "Kung ALS Learner Ka, Naiiba Ka." The highlight  of the occasion was the awarding ceremony on the 2011 Search for the Most Efficient Provincial/City Division that Support the ALS on Day 2 of the congress, April 12, 2012.

BALS plans, new initiative
by: Dr. Roger Torres Lustestica, Jr. ALSD Chief

         The Alternative Learning System Division, DepEd Region V is seriously considering the intensive implementation of ALS programs and projects particularly the ALS Gabay-Aral  sa Pamayanan (AGAP) program by hiring more volunteers. In Region V, the AGAP program is piloted by the Divisions of Masbate and Albay and being expanded in Divisions of Camarines Sur, Camarines Norte and Sorsogon.

ALS implementers go to Region VI & X
by: Dr. Roger Torres Lustestica, Jr. ALSD Chief

         The Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS) is recently conducting the Immersion and Exchange Program for ALS Mobile Teachers for those hired in 2007 on April 24-26,  2012. It can be recalled that the Immersion and Exchange Program started way back in 2004.

Despite difficulties
by: JUSTINO B. CABARLES, JR. -Principal I, Masbate Division-On detail at Planning Unit DepEd Region V

         How important is education to a grade school pupil? Riza V. Abaño never met American educator Horace Mann, but she lives the philosophy of Mann, who once said  that a person  doesn’t reach his full potential until he is educated.           

         Young Riza and six other grade school pupils of Guinhadap Elementary School were determined to get basic education despite powerful difficulties. The experiences of these pupils, as featured in the GMA News TV June 2011 episode of Education Special, are  unique to a number of communities in Masbate.


34, s. 2015

12th Regional Alternative Learning System (ALS) Out of School Youth/Adult (OSY/OSA) Summer Encampment

33, s. 2015

One-Day Planning Conference for the K to 12 Regional Training of Grade 10 Teachers with the Training Service Providers

32, s. 2015

Submission of Supreme Pupil Government (SPG) & Supreme Student Government (SSG) Election Consolidated Reports

31, s. 2015

Developmental-National Competency-Based Teachers Standards (D-NCBTS) Research Project of the Philippine National Research Cener for Teachers Quality


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A Salute to Women with Disabilities
By: Ma. Gina D. Surles, Ph.D.

As the Department of Education joins the nation in the celebration of the 11th Women With Disabilities Day through  DepED Order No. 8, s. 2013 with the theme," Juanang May Kapansanan, Kapasyahan Mo ay Mahalaga sa Bayan", it is but fitting to celebrate  the lives of women with disabilities who choose to go through life with determination and courage to go beyond the challenges that they encounter every day.  It is not a laughing matter to be born with and grow up with a disability; it is equally difficult  to or to suddenly become disabled because of an accident or unfortunate circumstance. No one chooses to live the difficult life of a person with disability, and yet those who have it are forced to live with the fact that they are different and thus, are  more vulnerable. In most cases, life for persons with disability is a test of conviction and faith to be able to perceive that despite the difficulties, life is still precious, and yes, it is a gift.  

As we pay our respect to the women who nurture life, we come to realize just how amazing women with disabilities truly are. Just imagine a mother with disability giving birth to a child; consider the polio victim, the deaf, the mute or the blind and the  seemingly insurmountable challenges each faces on a regular basis just living their daily lives. For a  mother with polio, in particular, imagine her difficulty in the simple act of walking and how doubly difficult it is to carry a baby in her womb for  nine months. The tendency of falling is often more pronounced in these months than when she is  not pregnant. The challenges continue after giving birth, with the responsibility of taking good care of the baby. The growing up years are likewise tedious,  as the mother deals with the child’s tantrums, physical demands and playful antics. Truly, the ordeal can be very difficult and nerve-wracking, especially for a mother whose movements are limited because of her physical disability.

In addition, the life of a working mother with disability is also wrought with challenges. There are myriad barriers in the environment even as she tries to ignore her condition and go about the routine at home:  waking up early to cook food for the family  and attend to their needs. Upon leaving home on the way to work, their is the hassle of walking and crossing the street, riding a trike, jeepney, bus or van in which the ‘priority seats’ are usually ignored by normal-legged, strong individuals.  Unfortunately, persons with disability have to contend with the fact that some transportation vehicles are designed accordingly to the owner’s taste, without due consideration to the differences of the commuters as a whole.  If misfortune kicks,  the driver suddenly kicks off the gas and speeds up, leaving the poor commuter with disability visibly shaken and out of their wits.Then there is the difficulty of carrying various items, such as umbrella or raincoat, which is particularly tough for a  person who has to exert effort to keep balance especially when the floor is slippery and the path has no ramp and rail to hold on to.

And the story goes on. Think of a deaf and mute woman who has to survive in a society who is oftentimes not supportive of her plight. Only a few will bother to look into her needs and patiently decode what she wants to express through hand signals and  gestures. This woman can be a mother, who needs to stay close to her child and care for her in the best way that she can manage. Finally, imagine a blind woman who gropes around and feels her way to almost everything that she has to do throughout her  lifetime. Deprived of her sense of sight, she has to make do with other senses that will compensate for her loss. It is truly remarkable how they are able to cope despite their personal vulnerabilities and imperfections.

Truly, persons with disabilities must be very tough, in order to endure harsh discriminations thrown their way, especially from people who remain unsympathetic about their plight. Despite the policies currently enacted in the country to protect and promote  their comfort and security, there still remains a large form of apathy directed towards them, making their lives laborious and exhaustingly challenging. It is hoped that soon, persons with disabilities will be given more attention and priority, with their  needs fully and appropriately addressed. After all, they are no different from a "normal" being. They share the same hopes and dreams, and they are people capable of excellence and achievement. It is but fitting that they will be given a fair share of  opportunity in the society and also enjoy equal access to health services, education, training and employment, and protection from sexual and other forms of abuse.

With all these forms of barriers eliminated, persons with disabilities will finally be given the chance to live their lives in the best way possible. They too, deserve such privilege, just like the rest of "normal" people in the society.  As this year’s theme so aptly puts it, their voice is significant, and their cry should also be heard. (3-23-15)


Ni: Priscilla Jadie- Ombao
Education Program Supervisor

         "Inihandog ni Abraham si Isaac", ito ang aking nabasa sa bibliya nang araw na iyon. Hindi ko akalain na ito ang mensahe sa akin ng Panginoon. Ako ay nagbulay-bulay  upang Siya ay kausapin kung bakit ito ang mensahe Niya sa akin. Bago ako umalis ng bahay iniisip ko pa rin kung bakit ito ang ibinigay niyang mensahe na kailangan kong limi-limiing mabuti.

         Ika-5 ng Marso 2015, National Achievement Test sa Ikaapat na Antas sa Sekondarya. Hindi ko mawari ng hapon na iyon,na aking nasagap na balita, apat na estudyante sa Anislag High School naaksidente, dalawa agarang namatay, at ang dalawa naman ay nakaligtas  sa bingit ng kamatayan, ngunit ang isa ay pinutulan ng isang paa. Ang insidente nangyari matapos ang nasabing pagsusulit, na habang papauwi at naghihintay ng sasakyan ay aksidenteng nabangga ng rumaragasang trak.

         Hindi ako makatulog sa gabing iyon. Aking inaalala ang mga magulang ng mga biktima. Alam kong masakit mawalan ng anak lalo na sa ganoong uri ng kamatayan. Doon ko  naalala ang mensahe sa akin at aking napag-ugnay ang kanyang mensahe sa aking naramdaman.

         Lubos kong naunawaan ang ginawa ni Abraham na kahit gaano kasakit kung loloobin ng Dios ay kailangan nating ialay sa kanya. Sa ganitong kalagayan ay aking napagtanto na kailangan naming puntahan ang mga bangkay upang ihatid ang mensahe at nang mapagaan  ang kalooban ng mga magulang.

         Kinabukasan, maagang nag-uusap-usap ang aking mga kasamahan at lahat sila ay nalumbay sa balita lalo na ang namumuno ng aming ahensya na si  Director Ramon Fiel G. Abcede. Para maipamalas at maipadama ang pakikiramay ng buong Kagawaran, ay agarang nagpadala  ng napakalaking korona sa bawat pamilya ng nasawian na estudyante. At isinunod ang pagplano ng pagbisita  sa kinaroroonan ng bangkay.

Dahil sa sinapit ng mga biktima. Hindi nagdalawang-isip ang lahat ng empleyado ng Kagawaran ng Edukasyon ng Rehyon Bicol upang mag-abot ng abuloy para sa mga estudyanteng ito. Agad naman namin itong iniabot sa pamilya nina Rona Alcera at Laurence Soriao.

         Sa aming pagtahak sa bahay nina Rona Alcera, naglakad kami  ng aking mga kasamahan sa ahensya sa pangunguna ng aming Chief Administrative Officer V Jose B.Bonto, HRDD Chief Cynthia D. Jacob , Education Program Supervisor Sancha M.Nacion at ang Pangulo  ng aming Pangulo ng DEROEU Ma. Cecilia L. Alamares, at Administrative Aid Rolando Moratalla at ng aming Driver na si Gregorio Abued. Naglakad kami ng halos isang  kilometro, sa pagtahak namin papunta sa lugar  tumawid kami sa maliit na sapa, dumaan sa  pilapil upangmakarating sa isang liblib na lugar ng Penafrancia, Daraga , Albay, na kung saan doon nakahimlay ang bangkay ni Rona Alcera. Sa bahay na iyon ay aking nakita ang mga magulang. Naramdaman namin ang kanilang lungkot. Sa aming pakikiramay doon  namin nakita ang tuwa na kami ay kanilang nakadaupang-palad. Malaking bagay sa amin ang marinig mula sa kanila na naibsan ang sakit na kanilang nararamdaman nang makita nila ang aming simpatiya sa pamilya.

         Hindi pa man kami nakakauwi ay tinahak naman namin ang bahay ni Laurence Soriao sa Sysam Subd, Penafrancia, Daraga, Albay. Nawala ang pagod namin nang makita namin ang dami ng tao na nagmamahal sa mga estudyante na sa kabila ng layo ng mga lugar nila  ay hindi alintana ito madalaw lamang ang kanilang kaanak at kaibigan. Laking pasasalamat  ng pamilya nang abutan namin sila ng aming abuloy.Nakakataba ng puso na nakakapasaya ka ng tao sa kabila ng trahedya sa kanilang buhay .

         Masuyo kaming tinanggap ng kanilang pamilya at halos nakilala namin ang mga estudyanteng ito maging ang kanilang mga pangarap sa buhay na sa murang edad ay inuuna pa rin nila ang kapakanan  ng pamilya na matapos ang pag-aaral ay kanilang tutulungan ang  kanilang mga magulang upang maiahon nila ito sa kahirapan. Napaiyak ako sa kanilang kabayanihan. Isa silang henyo ng kabataan.

         Sa aming pag-uwi, doon ko biglang naalala ang mensahe sa akin. Gaya ni Abraham ay inialay nila nang mapayapa at bukal sa kalooban ang napakagandang alay, ang kanilang anak na puno ng pag-asa at pagmamahal sa mga magulang. Sila pala ang may dala ng mensahe  sa akin sa araw na iyon.

         Tayo kaya? Kaya ba nating ialay ang ating mga anak para sa Kanya?

My Journey
Catalina P. Garcia
EPS/ Reading Recovery

         One of the boldest actions one can make is to pursue a dream in the midst of challenges and difficulties.  However, if one has the spirit and the nerve to make dreams come true, everything becomes possible.

         This is what happened in my journey as I immersed in Reading Recovery Program. As a secondary teacher, I did not  have the skills in handling elementary non-readers. It was indeed,   a dilemma,  because  I did know where to start with these pupils who were so helpless because they could not identify the letters in the alphabet or the sounds in every letter. I was  also clueless how to get to pupils who were hungry because they did not eat their meals. Moreover, there were also children who were products of broken families, victims of bullying and threatened by child labor.  I could not even start a conversation  with pupils who were innocent, timid, insecured and  afraid. In fact, in those moments, I felt that I did not even know myself. But what was evident to me at that time was the reality that  I was a tabula rasa, having nothing but the responsibility entrusted  to me to do something about the children’s serious plight in education.

         My interaction with non-readers made me realize that, my scholarship, my doctoral degree, my commendations were all in vain. Yes, they are nothing but documents that would not help these pupils who have least in life. All I need to do is to dream, act,  and believe that I can change the lives of these pupils. Looking back at my first few weeks with the Reading Recovery pupils were really very difficult to handle. I needed to fetch them to attend our session. Sometimes, they hid at the back door because  they were hesitant to enter the room. Others were also adept at making alibis like suffering from headache, stomach ache, toothache and many more aches. Or, they would ask permission to go out from the RR room due to personal necessity, and they would  not come back anymore.   When I asked them about something, they would just glance at me without saying anything. Their hopeless look, as well as their silence was a big bang of the harsh reality that these children have been abandoned and neglected.  And while we are busy improving ourselves professionally, we are leaving them behind, struggling alone. We almost forget that they need a helping hand to lift them up and be with the average group in the class.

         This realization drives me to walk an extra mile everyday to sustain the Reading Recovery Program in the Region. From its first implementation in Legazpi City Division in 2010, the program expands to Albay Division, Sorsogon Division, Naga City Division,  Camarines Sur Division, Camarines Norte Division and Catanduanes Division. At present there are sixty five elementary schools in the region with Reading Recovery Program with one hundred twenty six Reading Recovery teachers and five hundred ninety six  pupils who benefit from this program. Children who are accelerated and eventually discontinue with the program show significant achievements in their class. The once shy pupils become active and participative in class discussions. The less confident pupils  who are afraid to mingle with other pupils have transformed into friendly and accommodating individuals. The hard-to-talk pupils are able to speak with confidence and love for reading has been developed among them.

         This experience has taught me three significant things: to love the children for who and what they are;  commitment comes with action; and humility in the face of a child.  I  pray that the  Reading Recovery Program will continue to change the lives of our children.

Philippines-Japan exchange student programme : Bridging the Cultural Gap

By: Sancha M. Nacion

         International cooperation between the Philippines and Japan has been continuously increasing and robust through the years. This is a far cry from six decades ago when their people were politically embroiled in seemingly insurmountable differences  which caused sharp nosedive in their international cooperation in almost all aspects of human endeavor. Distrust, pain and tears were so great that the great peoples’ cultural, educational, political, and economic exchanges moved at a snail's pace.

         But amazingly, in recent years, Japan and the Philippines’ healthy cooperation achieved through years of expanded and deep cultural exchanges particularly their student exchange programme have increased understanding leading to political,  economic, and even defense ties. After years of people-to-people contact and strong cultural programmes and educational exchanges, the two countries have shortened the wedge on cultural diversity. Specifically, the student exchange cooperation between  Japan and the Philippines has increased understanding between the two countries. Students learning from each other cultures, mores and traditions have discovered so much to share for a peaceful coexistence and common affluence.  This has helped clear  up misunderstandings, remove barriers and promote strong friendship. More importantly, deepening the people-to-people contact increases understanding and tolerance of other cultures and broadening social horizons. Learning your host country native tongue  has now become both a challenge and rewarding experience.  

         For this reason, students, teachers and young professionals should be more open to travel and learning from each other cultures.  In a student exchange program, the purpose is not necessarily to earn a degree or acquire a foreign language but more  of taking the opportunity to experience a foreign culture, traditions and understanding or accepting each other‘s diversity. Being a participant to the program, students learn to respect individual differences. In a small or big group sessions,  expect diverse or varied responses increasing one’s perspectives and thus broadening, deepening our respect on others point-of-views/opinions and beliefs. Participants are apt to take more ownership of their ideas and to think critically whenever  a situation is presented or an experience is shared. Students benefit so much when working with people of different beliefs, culture and diverse perspective on wide-ranging issues. They learn to reflect upon and reply positively to questions or issues  raised which ultimately lead to greater understanding of each other.

         Normally, an exchange program between Japan and our country lasts from about a week, to several months and to some extent years. Participants are exposed to an intensive activities that increases their understanding of other cultures, communities,  and languages. Participants  should expect to immerse themselves in the local community and be able to converse in Nihonggo while in  Japan. Upon their return, students are expected to share their knowledge and experiences into their daily lives and to  others.

         Despite what we can learn about other countries and their people via the internet, our knowledge about individuals from those places needs to be broadened through a positive people-to-people interaction. As one writer puts it, “The real crucial  link with institutional exchange is the last three (3) feet, which is bridged by personal contact, one person talking to another. Through the Philippines-Japan student exchange program, we can bridge those last three feet to create personal connections  that increase understanding and trust.

Upgrading of Teacher Positions: An Elaboration of Guidelines
by: Salome D. Antonio

         It has been five years now since I prepared a letter, properly indorsed by the Regional Office, specifically addressed to the public school teachers of this  Region.

         After the advocacy, a great number of our teachers have been upgraded or "promoted" to Teacher II or Teacher III positions.

         Those teachers in far-flung places who have never heard of this information and to those who never got the chance of visiting us in our Office (Personnel Section-DepEd ROV) particularly, the newly-hired teachers, would be inspired and feel determined  to finish their post-graduate studies looking forward to the possibility that they could be "promoted" without waiting for any resulting vacancy.

         First, how are they going to do this?

         Teachers may first apply for Equivalent Records Form (ERF) to their respective Human Resource Management Officers (HRMOs) by bringing the following basic requirements:

1. Original copy of the Official Transcript of Records (TOR) with Special   Order Number and/or certification of graduation  duly certified by the   school concerned;
2.  Sworn Statement of a teacher if units were earned in a private school.
3. Updated Service Record;
4. Certified Xerox copy of an approved ERF as Teacher II, if any (for an   application to T-III only) and a certification duly-signed by the Registrar   regarding the required number of units
    for graduation in Master’s Degree;   and
5. Performance Rating for the last two school years

A Teacher I can apply for ERF to become a Teacher II or a Teacher III and/or a Teacher II  can apply for Teacher III based on the following qualifications:

From T-I to T-II:

1. 20 units in Master’s Degree; or
2. 20 years of teaching experience in public schools (if not used in the   computation   of the length of service for the grant of step increment); or
3. Combination of units earned in Master’s Degree plus seminars attended   (Division, Regional, National & International)


 Item no. 1:  20 units in Master’s Degree = BSE + 20

 Item no.3:  Combination of units earned in Master’s Degree and seminars attended

                   15 units in Master’s Degree
                     5 units for seminars attended (125 hrs.)
                 20 units

From T-I to TIII or from T-II to T-III
1. Master’s degree in Education; or
2. 20 units earned in Master’s Degree +  20 years of teaching experience ( if   not used in the computation of the length of service for the grant of step   increment); or
3. Completed Academic Requirements (CAR) + 150 hours in seminars,   conferences   and trainings attended (Division, Regional, National and   International) – equivalent to the
    required units before finishing the   Master’s Degree  in   the College/University attended; or
4. Bachelor’s degree or its equivalent plus Master’s Degree units equivalent   to the no. of units required to finish the Master’s Degree as   declared by College/University last attended.

 Ex: Masbate College   - 42 units (required no. of units to graduate
       Master’s Degree)

         The implementation of an ERF is called Upgrading. Meaning to say, the approved ERF is requested for funding by their respective Division Offices, which is being passed on through the Regional Office for the approval of the Department  of Budget and Management in this Region.

         Once again, they have to visit the office of their Division HRMO, for the implementation request of their ERF. Hereunder are the items of requirements. Please take note that only one (1) copy for every document is required:
1. Plantilla Allocation List (PAL)
2. Updated Service Record
3. Certified true copy of his/her approved ERF
4. Certified true copy of the marriage contract (for married female   teacher whose ERF has been approved while she was still single)
5. Indorsement by the Schools Division Superintendent

         Similar to Promotion; Upgrading entails increase in salary, however, it must be noted that  upgrading could be made even without vacancy hence, ranking is not necessary. Once the request for funding is approved (as confirmed by the Notice of Organization Staffing and Compensation Action [NOSCA]), from the Department of Budget  and Management, using his old item in his previous position, an appointment is issued.

         Whereas, speaking of promotion there is a natural vacancy or an item/ position in the so-called Personal Services Itemization and Plantilla of Personnel (PSIPOP) has been vacated due to the resignation, transfer, death, promotion,  etc. of the incumbent.

        Those previously approved ERFs but still remain unimplemented up to now, and those recently approved ERFs, may be requested for implementation. However, requests are subjected to funds allocation.

         Along with the teacher-transferee who used to occupy a Teacher II or Teacher III position due to ERF from his/her previous assignment/station (be it from the district, division, or another region), using his old approved  ERF, may be restored to his/her previous position.

         Upgrading may also apply to the existing Head Teachers who wish/desire to be upgraded, through an ERF. For instance, from Head Teacher I to Head Teacher II/ Head Teacher III and/or from Head Teacher II to Head Teacher  III position (which is applicable to both elementary and secondary levels) and likewise, from Head Teacher IV to Head Teacher V/Head Teacher VI and/or Head Teacher V to Head Teacher VI position (such positions  are only available in the secondary level).

In summary, the upward movement for teachers and/or the Head Teachers due to the ERF scheme is only within one (1) category, to illustrate:

T1, T2 and T3 = within one (1) category

    T1 ---> T2 or T3
    T2 -->  T3

HT1, HT2 and HT3 = within one (1) category
                              (elem./secondary level)

    HT1 -->  HT2 or HT3
    HT2 -->  HT3

    HT 4 -->  HT5 or HT6
    HT 5 -->  HT6

         Moreover, to recall DECS Order No.59, s.2000 entitled, "ERF not Required for Promotion to Vacant Teacher  II and III Positions", it is good to note that, for purpose of filling up vacant Teacher II and Teacher III positions, ERF cannot be used as preference for appointment nor it would be a ground to disqualify a teacher with an approved ERF from joining  the ranking for promotion. At one point, it is a matter of choice if he/she would apply for promotion or upgrading.

Collaboration in Special Education: Towards a More Inclusive Environment in School Communities

         Current innovations in the field of special education have necessitated the implementation of modifications that aim to address the needs of learners with disability inside the school. One such reform is directed towards collaboration, which is now considered  to be an integral part in today’s schools (Barth, 2006; James, 2007; Murray, 2004, as cited in Friend & Cook, 2010) because of the need to expand and respond to the complex responsibilities confronting the school community  through pooling of thoughts and actions together (Frey & Pumpian, 2006; Kochhar-Bryant, 2008; Neus & Scherf, 2005, as cited in Friend & Cook, 2010). Interpersonal collaboration inside the school, most specifically, is recognised  to be a style that enables at least two equal parties to directly interact and engage voluntarily in a shared decision-making in order to achieve a common goal (Friend & Cook, 2010) that will likely benefit  the learners with disability.

         It can never be discounted that collaboration in special education which aims to pave the way for greater inclusion of students with disability in regular classes and schools weighs heavily on special education teachers who need to consult, support and  collaborate with regular teachers in order to uphold the well-being of the students with special needs. In fact, even before the passage of federal special education law in 1975, special educators have already been providing indirect services to students  with disability by working closely with general education teachers in a setting dubbed as consulting teaching (McKenzie, 1972, as cited in Friend & Cook, 2010).  At present, aside from responding to the trend that supports inclusive  practices (Patterson, 2005; Smith, 2007, as cited in Friend & Cook , 2010), collaboration also establishes a clear link to setting high standards for student achievement and generate accountability systems  for students (Friend & Cook, 2010).

         Researches have also underscored the difference that collaboration makes. Shannon and Blysma
(2004) as cited in Friend and Cook (2010) have confirmed that in the school districts that they have studied,  those that were found to be improving have pointed to the development of collaborative relationships as the key factor for their improvement. This sentiment is echoed by the research initiated by Caron and McLaughlin (2002) who  also points to collaboration as the dominant feature in the individual school’s achievement outcomes.

         In most cases, however, effective collaboration involving other stakeholders is not an easy task. Fields
(1996) as cited in Barnsley (2005) has noted that collaboration between Support Teachers-Learning  Difficulties and regular teachers are besieged with serious concerns that inevitably affect the students who need intervention (Fletcher-Campbell & Cullen, 2000, as cited in Barnsley, 2005). Thus, it is  essential that the support teachers who are actively involved in the collaboration process should be endowed by irrefutable characteristics that will effectively serve them as they work with school staff and parents of students with disability. Barnsley   (2005) has identified four significant areas of attributes that must be developed by a support teacher: knowledge and experience, communication, organizational skills and personal traits. Fields (1996)  as cited in Barnsley (2005) went on to say that for the working relationship between support teacher and general education teachers to succeed, appropriate communication and interpersonal skills should be in place. Among others,  these may include personal commitment, building rapport, word choice and active listening.

         Personal commitment is a characteristic that needs to be developed by a support teacher who aspires to work effectively with others, enabling them to carry out their responsibility voluntarily and which also includes their personal belief that working  with colleagues and parents are beneficial
(Friend & Cook, 2010). Personal commitment also facilitates understanding of other people’s perspectives (Friend & Cook, 2010), making the support teacher  open to diverse ideas coming from school staff and parents during meetings and planning sessions that need to be threshed out before coming to decision-making.

         Building rapport, on the other hand, essentially builds goodwill to those working together in order to successfully achieve common goals. In the process of crafting a student’s individualised education program, for example, communication is considered  to be the foundation that provides a basis for building a successful and effectively implemented plan
(Diliberto & Brewer, 2012). It is essential that teachers should be able to work closely with parents  in order to identify goals and objectives that will suit the students’ needs. Through a clear understanding of the needs of the students brought about by consultations with the parents, (Diliberto & Brewer, 2012), an atmosphere  of trust is being built which enables parents to work actively with the teachers in the crafting and implementation of the IEP that will address their child’s special needs while in school. When rapport is built between teachers and parents, parents  become empowered because they believe that they are heard and consulted, with their inputs carefully considered in the plan that is aimed to help their child (Meadan, Shelden, Appel, DeGracia, 2010).

         Still another area that needs to be taken care of is the appropriate use of language when communicating with school staff and parents. Sileo and Prater
(2012) have stressed on the correct word choice as vital in facilitating understanding  and encouraging participation. Care should be given that the support teacher’s words will not overpower other school staff, and a closer attention should be given as to how words are used when in front of parents during meetings and consultation (Sileo & Prater, 2012). Jargons, technical words, even acronyms should be limited and simplified (Diliberto & Brewer, 2012; Sileo & Prater, 2012) for clarity and fostering of a collaborative team environment. This stand  is supported by Dabkowski (2004) cited in Sileo and Prater (2012) who pointed out that parents become more comfortable and involved when educators use words that make them feel valued and respected.  In addition, the use of pronouns "we" and "us" also emphasizes team processes (Lytle & Bordin, 2001) that encourages partnership and equal treatment (Fish, 2006; Pruitt et al., 1998; Span et al., 2003).

         Finally, there is a need to develop among support teachers the skills of active listening. It has to be understood that parents are oftentimes overwhelmed with dealing and understanding the needs of their own child and they need somebody to talk to and  listen to their concerns. Here, it is essential that teachers know how to listen carefully to what parents have to say
(Seligman & Darling, 2007, as cited in Sileo & Prater, 2012) and to give assurance and  empathy whenever needed. For some teachers, listening can be challenging because of preconceived notions about the needs of a student with disability but it is imperative that during consultations and meetings, the support teacher should be ready to listen  and understand the ideas presented by the parents. Sileo and Prater (2012) have noted how parents have reported that they appreciate educators who listen to them and respect their opinions and values. They also want to be active  participants in the decision-making of the education support needs appropriate for their child and do not like educators to dominate meetings (Pruitt et al., 1998, as cited by Sileo & Prater, 2012).

         Despite the reforms initiated by the school in order to enhance collaboration, however, there are still circumstances that challenge the effective implementation of interventions that necessitate people to work together. One immense challenge is seen  in the parent’s reluctance to engage in collaborative relationships. This hesitation can be attributed to several factors: lack to time, intimidation, poor knowledge of their child’s disability, differing cultural beliefs, distrust to educators,  guilty, anxiety, and even stigma
(Sileo & Prater, 2012). When the child’s family refuses to take part in the planning and decision-making on how their child should be supported in school, this can lead to complex concerns  that will eventually impact on the child’s learning environment. Thus, teachers should put in place several strategies that will support the parents of the students with disability and encourage them to actively take part in the collaborative process  of assisting their children.

         One effective way of breaking the barriers of indifference and hesitation that block parent’s participation in the collaborative process is by giving them the information that they need. It has to be stressed that there are occasions when parents  do not understand their child’s disabling condition and thus, should be given accurate and complete information
(Pruitt, Wandry & Hollums, 1990, as cited in Sileo & Prater, 2012). Although the task  of telling them the truth can sometimes be overwhelming to teachers, honesty is identified to be important in reducing barriers and enabling parents to participate in the promotion of their child’s welfare while in school (Turnball,  Turnball, Erwin & Soodak, 2006 as cited in Sileo & Prater, 2012). In fact, in most cases, parents rely on the school team members to identify their child’s needs and to give the necessary recommendations in dealing with child  ?s disability (Lambie, 2000, as cited in Sileo & Prater, 2012). For this reason, trust has to be gained in order for parents to cooperate in the collaborative process, necessitating the teacher’s  decisiveness during consultations and meetings. Stoner and Angell (2006) as cited in Sileo and Prater (2012) have revealed that parent’s trust increase when the teachers display competence, show sincere  interest in serving their child’s educational needs, and keep their word.

         Still another way of establishing clear connections with the parents is to keep the communication lines open to them. Sileo and Prater
(2012) have recognised effective communication as vital not only in conveying information, but  also in establishing positive relationships with the parents. It is also seen by parents as an ongoing process (Lillie, 1998, as cited in Sileo & Prater, 2012) which enables them to keep updated about their  child’s progress in school, which may occur not only during formal meetings and consultations, but also when they are contacted to respond to immediate needs of their child through personal visits and phone calls (Friend & Cook, 2010 ).

         Inside the school, on the other hand, the standard school structure can get in the way of collaborative work. Professionals are used to doing great amount of work in isolation from others, even co-workers
(Lortie, 1975; Pomson, 2005, Sarason,  1982, as cited in Friend & Cook, 2010) which may intervene in their active participation in working with others. Even with the advent of inclusive practice, the conventional structure among teachers of working alone  and managing their own classes remain an issue (Barth, 2006; Milner & Hoy, 2003, as cited in Friend & Cook, 2010). It is important then, that school authorities should facilitate constructive interactions among professionals who  need to work together that aim to stress that working collaborately with others does not necessarily impede independence and self-reliance (Friend & Cook, 2010).

         Through all the reforms initiated by the school community in ensuring that students with disability are appropriately cared for and their needs effectively responded to, it is remarkable how special education teachers play a vital role in the achievement  of collaborative goals. With their resources and experiences combined with their interpersonal and communication skills and the ability to work with school staff and parents of students with disability, special education teachers can pave the way for  the attainment of increased student achievement and the protection of the students’ general well-being. (jllagata. January, 2015)

Risk and protective factors: how they impact on a child’s mental health

         Every child needs to be assured with good mental health through the love, security and understanding of adults who are responsible for their welfare. This society, comprised  of a child’s home, school and community, are stewards of a child’s future; and many researchers have underscored the critical role each of them play and how interactions in these three environments contribute to a child’s social and  emotional well-being. For this reason, a careful orchestration of the support systems in the home, school and community to guarantee positive outcomes that safeguard the child from the possibility of developing mental difficulty when they eventually immerse  in the society should be fashioned.

         Regrettably, however, this ideal scenario does not always transpire because children nowadays have to advance in a complex society. There are numerous circumstances when children have to contend with the negative effects of various risk factors that exist  in their home, school and community which challenge their social and emotional well-being. Prolonged and consistent exposure to risk factors may increase a child’s likelihood of developing mental health difficulties (Kids Matter:  Australian Early Childhood Mental Health Initiative, 2012), but this can be countered by strengthening the prevailing protective factors in the same environment in order to buffer them from the risks, and decrease  the possibility of acquiring mental health problems (Kids Matter: Australian Early Childhood Mental Health Initiative, 2012). It has to be clarified though, that no single environment, e.g. the  home, will have an autonomous impact on a child’s development; a child is exposed to different patterns of action, interaction and reaction in a wider social environment such as school and community (Howard & Johnson, 2000, p. 323;  Garbarino & Abramowitz, 1992, as cited in Howard & Johnson, 2000) which are contributory to their overall development. Thus, it is essential that a thorough understanding of the risk and protective factors in a child’s prevailing  environment should be made, in order to initiate intervention and strategies that will ensure sound mental health.

Risks and buffers in a child’s social systems

         Home. A child’s home is the primary environment that they are a part of, and is considered as pivotal in a child’s social and emotional well-being.  Nevertheless there are circumstances in a child’s home that can put them at risk such as unsupportive or neglectful relationships between parents and children (Kids Matter, 2012; Bradshaw, 2006; Young Minds Professional; Gittins,  2001, pp. 13-15). Sadly, there are children born to teenage mothers who do not have a clue about parenting, and who will end up unsupportive and neglectful because they are overwhelmed by the responsibilities that parenting entrust to them.  The parents’ vulnerability against responsible parenting is increased when they have lower levels of education (The Sydney Morning Herald, 2001, p.1; Sawyer et al., 2001, p. 812) and there is the absence of a partner  in the family (Gittins, 2001, pp. 13-15; Sawyer et al., 2001, p. 812). In several instances, parents can be harsh or inconsistent (Kids Matter, 2012), which can be further aggravated by financial  difficulties (Kids Matter, 2012; The Sydney Morning Herald, 2001, p.1; Howard & Johnson, 2000) such as unemployment and large number of children in the family. All of these risk factors are critical because researchers have  noted that uncertainties and differences in the family that remain unresolved and are oftentimes persistent (DiLalla, Mitchell, Arthur, & Pagliocca, 1988; Gest, Neeman, Hubbard, & Masten, 1993; Patterson, 1982; Wasserman, Miller, Pinner, &Jaramillo, 1996, as cited in Bradshaw, 2006) can result to mental health difficulties among children and adolescents if not properly addressed.

         On the other hand, there are protective factors can be effective buffers against the identified risks inside the home. Supportive and close relationships inside the immediate family (Kids Matter, 2012; National  Crime Prevention, 2001; Scales, Benson, Leffert, & Blyth, 2000, as cited in Bradshaw, 2006; Howard & Johnson, 2000) are fundamental in raising mentally balanced children. Setting high expectations for the child (Scales,  Benson, Leffert, & Blyth, 2000 as cited in Bradshaw, 2006) and open communication (Scales, Benson, Leffert, & Blyth, 2000, as cited in Bradshaw, 2006) also serve as  buffers to whatever risks that may exist within the home. A family, for example, may be financially challenged; but if the parents articulate their expectations for the child to post good marks and surmount academic challenges which indicate their support  to the child’s endeavour, the child will likely increase the chance of achieving a balanced and positive disposition in life.  

        Interestingly, family difficulties such as economic hardships and belonging to a large family can sometimes represent as a buffer when appropriately utilised by a responsible parent. These situations can encourage independence and maturity (Howard & Johnson, 2000 p. 326) as the child is entrusted with care of younger siblings and assist in chores at home. Another equally appealing protective factor that influences a child is the level of maternal support and affection given  to them. Children who chose not to get involved in crimes despite influence of delinquent peers point to their mother’s love and support as the key factor that spell the difference to them (The Sydney Morning Herald, 2002, p. 6).  

         School. A school-age child spends most of their waking hours inside the school. It is imperative then, that this particular environment should cater to the child’s needs and attend to their welfare in the best way possible in  order to promote their positive growth and development. However, there are evidences that point to the fact that even schools can be venues for risk factors, with teachers as the primary triggers. When teachers resort to coercive techniques and maintain  a dominant stance inside the classroom (Hyman & Snook, 2000; Lewis, 2001, as cited in Lewis, 2004, p. 18), praise sparingly but disapprove highly of inappropriate behaviour in the classroom  (Martin et al., 1999,  as cited in Arbuckle & Little, 2004, p. 61; Fry, 1983; Walker & Buckley, 1973; cited in Webster-Stratton, 1993; further cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 494), these are indications of the utilisation of  techniques that tend to label and exclude students (Hyman & Snook, 2000; Lewis, 2001, as cited in Lewis, 2004, p. 18). This could be detrimental because labeling and excluding students can often  result to peer rejection and bullying (National Crime Prevention, 2001;  Evans, 2011 ), which will limit the child’s opportunity to actively take part in the activities with peers and be involved in classroom undertakings (Bearman & Wheldall, 1997; Little & Hudson, 1998, as cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 494) while inside the school.

         Conversely, teachers are also considered vital in the development of protective factors inside the school. In fact, it has to be underscored that individual teachers are vanguards in the advancement of children who are resilient and mentally well-balanced (Geary, 1988; Werner & Smith, 1988; Coburn & Nelson, 1989, as cited in Howard & Johnson, 2000). Choosing to  embrace affirmation in lieu of disapproval (Houghton et al., 1990, as cited in  Arbuckle & Little, 2004, p. 61) are highly considered to be effective buffers for children, inasmuch as they highlight the strengthening of  on-task behaviours rather than focusing on inappropriate behaviours inside the classroom. Attentive,  caring teachers (Howard and Johnson, 2000) take time to conduct dialogues with children regarding incidence of misbehavior, consult children’s views about agreements that need to be arrived at, and fairly acknowledge  appropriate behaviour (Lewis, 2004, p. 18).

         One salient protective factor in the school that is oftentimes overlooked but is deemed significant to children is the provision of special help in order to overcome learning difficulties. The research conducted by Howard and Johnson (2000)  reveals how the children give premium to the availability of teachers who can give individual attention to their learning problems and patiently work them out through the difficult learning tasks that they encounter. This also details the necessity of  redirecting teachers’ attention to school achievement, because learning and achievement are equally important to children, as social skills training and development (Howard & Johnson, 2000, p. 332; Simpson,  Peterson & Smith, 2011, p. 238).

         Community. As the child grows, they inevitably expand their horizons and embrace the wider society where they belong; this time the community where they live and supposedly belong. Ideally, the community provides opportunities for the  child to engage in enjoyable activities which will enable them to develop skills and competencies (Howard & Johnson, 2000, p. 334). However, there are communities that are admittedly short of these opportunities because of  their peculiar characteristics such as socio-economic disadvantage remarkably punctuated by overpopulation, poor living conditions and neighborhood violence and crime (National Crime Prevention, 2001). These inadequacies can  be detrimental factors because the community environment significantly influences a child’s disposition. A child, for example, who lives in an environment where peers are engaged in crimes have a high possibility of being involved in them also (Gittins, 2001); in the same way that a child whose society accepts violence as a norm will develop the likelihood of being violent also (National Crime Prevention, 2001).

         It is crucial then, that the advancement of protective factors in the community should also be in place, in order to protect children from possible deterioration when exposed to various risk factors. Efforts exerted to forge linkages between communities  that foster mutual support and social responsibility (Reinke, Herman & Turner, 2006) offer a strong buffer that enables the society to look holistically into the community needs and respond to them through social support networks  initiated by social service agents (Howard &Johnson, 2000). It should not also be overlooked that children need access to community facilities, local shopping centers and sports and entertainment clubs (Howard  & Johnson, 2000, p. 333) which enables them to interact with peers and develop positive relationship with others. Finally, careful attention should be given to children’s safety, and buffers should be  made available that will protect them from bullying and harassment (Howard & Johnson, 2000, p. 333).

Behaviour problems vs. childhood resilience

         The earlier discussion had accentuated the likelihood that children who are exposed to various risk factors may develop mental health difficulties as they grow up. In fact,  some children who have genetic concerns towards psychological difficulties may succumb to mental illness if exposed to risk factors such as abuse and victimization (Salmon, James & Smith, 1998, as cited in Patton et al., 2000)  further aggravated by the lack of support by their environment (Young Minds Professional). Unfortunately, a vast majority of children with mental health problems remain undiagnosed (Sawyer et al., 2001, as cited  in Foggett, 2014) because of common misconception that challenging behaviour manifested by young children is a phase that they normally go through (Barkley, 1995, as cited in Infantino & Little,  2005, p. 492). Needless to say, early detection and intervention is crucial, because the challenging behaviour of young children if not addressed appropriately will eventually result to adverse concerns that will impact on the child and  their environment (Dunlap et al., 2006, as cited in Simpson, Peterson & Smith, 2011, p. 230; Forness, Walker & Kavale, 2003).

         In common instances when mental health problems remain undiagnosed, they are oftentimes interpreted as challenging or disruptive behaviours by the society. The defiance manifested against what is considered appropriate and proper behaviour (Balson, 1988, as cited in Infantino and Little, 2005, p. 492) often involves shunning orders and rejecting accord (Montgomery, 1989 as cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 492)  and can be very challenging to manage because of their demanding and unpredictable nature (Simpson, Peterson & Smith, 2011, p. 230). Oftentimes, disruptive behaviours are coping mechanisms that  children adopt in order to deal with their difficulties (Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 503).

        Still, it is remarkable that not all children succumb to mental health difficulties, despite their exposure to risk factors in their social systems. One protective factor that is worth investing on is the development of childhood resilience that will  enable a child to successfully adapt despite the challenging circumstances in their environment (Mastern, Best & Garmezy, 1990, as cited in Howard & Johnson, 2000, p. 321). The capacity of children  to display resilience despite the overwhelming odds that confront them can be attributed to their internal assets and the external strengths from where they draw their power to go beyond the adversities in lives (Howard & Johnson, 2000,  p. 321; Patton et al., 2000).

         Efforts should be exerted then, to capitalise and maximise the gains in the lives of these children and in the process, improve their resilience in battling the risk factors that surround them. Considering that the home is the most potent source of positive  experiences especially among young children, programs that will provide support and advice to "at risk" parents (Gittin, 2001) should be in place. Parents should be taught how to render strong parental support to their children  in order to cushion high-risk environments and generate positive impacts (Bradshaw, 2006).  Finally, parents should also be taught how to effectively battle aggressive behaviour manifested by their children by converging on  positive behaviour and non-discriminatory discipline (The Sydney Morning Herald, 2001, p. 1).

         Aside from the child’s home, the school and community also play significant roles in the development of childhood resilience. Teachers can provide prospects for a child’s active involvement in healthy, constructive and educational activity  outside the home (Howard & Johnson, 2000, p. 334), while their communities can promote youth participation, opportunity enhancement and inclusion (National Crime Prevention  and National Anti-Crime Strategy, 2003). What is significant is to be able to build on the child’s internal protective factors so that they will be able to develop the ability to adapt to difficulties, adjust to changes and secure  positive outcomes that are attributes of childhood resilience.

The school as haven of support

        The teachers, at present, are confronted with myriad concerns inside the classroom which make teaching extremely difficult for some. The complexities and demands in teaching (Reid, 1999; Ball, 1993, as cited in Howard & Johnson, 2000, p. 335) are oftentimes too much, resulting to attrition of 30% in the United States of America who left teaching because of problems in classroom  management and discipline concerns (Ingersoll, 2001, as cited in Arbuckle & Little, 2004, p. 61). As focal persons inside the classroom who are expected to initiate support most especially for children who are manifesting  behaviour problems, it is imperative that teachers should be endowed with the personal and professional characteristics that will allow them to carry out their tasks appropriately. Just as children should be supported in adapting to their high-risk environment  by developing their childhood resilience, teachers should also be taught how to enhance their resilience, which is a combination of personal strength further enhanced by a deep understanding and management of the risk and protective factors that surround  them inside the classroom (Benard, 2004 as cited in Beltman, Mansfield & Price, 2011, p. 186). It is only when inner conflicts have been resolved, can teachers be led to maintain their motivation, commitment and effectiveness  in the teaching profession (Day, 2008, as cited in Beltman, Mansfield & Price, 2011, p. 186). It is also only then, that they can start on their significant task of supporting students with behaviour problems inside the classroom (Lewis, 1999; Merrett & Wheldall, 1984, as cited in Arbuckle & Little, 2004, p. 61).

         Remarkably noted is the fact  that children with behaviour problems are congruently academically challenged (Bos & Vaughn, 2006; Kauffman, 2005, as cited in Simpson, Peterson & Smith, 2011, p. 237, Zubrick, 1995,  as cited in Foggett, 2014); and because of the disruptive manifestations of their behaviour, academic instructions have taken a back seat, with behavioural control given priority by the majority of their teachers (Bos, Coleman  & Vaughn, 2002; Downing, 2007, as cited in Simpson, Peterson & Smith, 2011, p. 237; Hodge, Riccomini, Buford & Herbst, 2006; Reid, Gonzales, Nordness, Trout & Epstein, 2004, as cited in Simpson, Peterson & Smith, 2011, p.  237; Houghton, Wheldall & Merrett, 1988 as cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 493; Little, 2005; Wheldall & Crawford, as cited in Beaman & Wheldall, 1997, further cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 502; Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 503).   Surprisingly, even children with behaviour problems are able to learn if they are appropriately exposed to methodologies that will encourage them to learn (Coleman & Vaughn, 2000; Griffith, Tout, Hagaman &  Harper, 2008; Lane, 2004, as cited in Simpson, Peterson & Smith, 2011, p. 238). What is vital, therefore, is for the teacher to recognise that apart from managing the children’s social and emotional needs, the necessity to ensure  that academic instruction is effectively carried out should be given premium. Whilst it is recognised that behaviour management remains to be the most frequent challenge in schools, (Beltman, Mansfield & Price,  2011,p. 190), academic achievement should not be neglected. This focus on achievement, competence and skill development (Howard & Johnson, 2000), of course, will not happen, if the teacher will not have the  good management skills that encompasses sound behaviour management and effective academic instruction.

         Classroom management remains to be the core in the strategies that have to be employed inside the classroom. It is important that children are informed of what are appropriate and inappropriate behaviours in the classroom (Little & Hudson,  1998, as cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 502), thereby setting clear expectations (Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 502). The same is true with academic instruction; clear articulation  of academic goals, consultations and planning on how objectives will be carried out and the existence of collaborative support system between the teacher, learners and classmates (Berliner, 1985, as cited in Simpson, Peterson & Smith, 2011,  p. 236) can build on a positive relationship between the teachers and the learners and ensure that goals are clearly on sight and reachable. Simpson et al. (2011) have highlighted the importance of trusting  and positive relationships of teachers and children in paving the way for the development of effective teachings that will post positive marks in the children’s academic development.

         Currently, there are interventions advocated that aim to support students with behaviour problems. One such intervention is focused on the benefits derived from reinforcement and punishment/reward and punishment/praise and reprimand/incentive and deterrent  which are seen to encourage on-task behaviour (Little, Hudson & Wilks, 2002; Merrett & Tang, 1994; Wilks, 1996; Little et all, 2002, as cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 494; Houghton, Weldall, Jukes & Sharpe,   1990, p. 495; Houghton, Merrett & Wheldall , 1988, as cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 495). But whilst receiving good marks for written work, free time and positive letter sent home are effective incentives, in the same way that  deterrents like tip sheets, getting unfavourable report sent home, being put on detention, given a good talking to in private are also found working to learners in various levels (Little et al., 2002, as cited in Infantino & Little, 2005,  p. 494; Houghton, Merrett & Wheldall, 1988; Leach & Tan, 1996; Merrett & Tang, 1994, as cited in Infantino & Little, 2005, p. 495), extra caution should be observed when these strategies are implemented. In  fact, Brigham & Brigham (2014) have warned that the use of reward and punishment should always be defined by the impact on the person experiencing them. What may be effective to one child does not necessarily follow that it  will also be applicable to others. If haphasardly employed, punishment can increase aggression and result to other serious problems like dropping out of school (Gershoff, 2002; Kennedy & Jolivette, 2008; Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 2002, as cited in Simpson, Peterson & Smith, 2011, p. 235). Thus, it is imperative that the utilisation of an intervention is properly fitted to the child’s individual needs and sensitivity, and this should be the  uppermost concern of every teacher.

         Additionally, another intervention that can be employed is anchored on the concept of inclusive practice which embraces every individual learner inside the classroom and is seen to foster positive academic impact and improved behaviour (Metzger,  2002; Roeser, Eccles & Sameroff, 2000; Ryan & Patrick, 2001, as cited in Lewis, 2004, p. 18). This highlights avoidance of coercion, promotes open communication, behavioural analysis and assertive discipline,  and fosters collaborative decision-making between the teachers and learners on the grounds of rules and consequences (Lewis, 2004, p. 19; Clement, 2002; Haroun & O-Hanlon, 1997b, as cited in Arbuckle & Little,  2004, p. 61; Wallance, Reschly Anderson, Bartholomay, and Hupp, as cited in Brigham and Brigham, 2014; Young Minds Professional). A new technology in special education, dubbed as Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) adheres to this inclusive  practice and encompasses a broad spectrum of a child’s social systems, by actively involving the child and their home, school and community in promoting effective behaviours (Reinke, Herman & Tucker, 2006). This school-wide  initiative which is currently gaining approval in many schools in the United States of America is worth looking into as it appropriately responds to the needs of children with mental health difficulties and promote their general well-being. This is echoed  by the Gatehouse Project in Australia that aims to establish school-based health team who will look into the school climate and device responses to identified health priority needs of children through relevant community agencies and resources (Patton, et al., 2000, p. 589). These two initiatives are clear marks that fragmented efforts by concerned individuals in the school and community need to be enhanced through combined efforts ideally suited in the whole school approach.

         For indeed, the promotion of children’s mental health is not the sole concern of the teacher inside the classroom, but this comprises the entire school community. It is important then, to develop a whole school approach that will put in place appropriate  and timely policies and interventions that are meant to address the individual needs of learners with mental health difficulties often manifested through their challenging behaviour. This should be actively participated in not only by the teachers, but  the child themselves, their parents, and the whole of community who are stakeholders to the child’s welfare and development (Tattum & Herbert, 1993; Sharp & Thompson, 1994; Rogers, 1997 as cited in Evans,  2001, p. 48, Foggett, 2014). It is equally important that teachers should be enveloped in a school atmosphere of solid support system coming from other professionals and school leaders in order to build on their competence and confidence  in adequately responding to their learners’ needs (Rooser et al, 2000, as cited in Lewis, 2004, p. 18). This can be further bolstered by their engagement in personal enhancement sessions,  reading appropriate literature, and attendance to staff meetings (Arbuckle & Little, 2004, p. 62).

         Ultimately, whilst it is recognised that a child’s life can be wrought with numerous challenges in the form of risk factors that may impede their positive development and social and emotional well-being, this does not mean that they will lead a  bleak future.  Through appropriate interventions and promotion of their welfare, combined with the strengthening of the protective factors that will empower their resilience against life’s odds, this can mean that the challenges they encounter  will not deter them from leading happy, successful and rewarding lives in the future. Indeed, an impressive and thorough coordination of the community, school and home social systems can spell the difference in their young lives. (jllagata  December, 2014)


ni: Pricilla Jadie – Ombao
Education Program Supervisor II
DEPED Regional Office V, Rawis, Legazpi City
Regional Office V, Rawis, Legazpi City

Rabis na nakamamatay at nakahahawa
Kalusugan ng mga tao ang nakataya
DEPED sa Rawis tumugon sa ahensya
Programa ng DOH sila’y sumuporta

Mga kaguruan sa iba’t ibang sangay
Sa rehiyon Bikol, dumalo nang sabay-sabay
Mga dalubhasa’y nagsubsob ng kilay
Implementasyon ng rabis sa kurikulum gabay

Mga tagamasid maging namumuno
DOH at DEPED tagumpa’y ay natamo
Pagkat natapos ang manwal ng guro
Na siyang gagamitin sa pagtuturo

Naging masaya at hindi nakakapagod
Ang tatlong araw na pangmumudbod
Ng karunungan sa pagsulat ay iniabot
Upang ang kabataa’y alam ang gamot

Maging mapagmatyag at bigyang lunas
Sakit na rabis na sadyang di matalastas
Sa laway ng mga aso at maging gasgas
Virus nito ay nakalat, biktima ay tataas

Kapag nakagat ng aso bigyan ng atensyon
Hugasan agad ng tubig na may sabon
Dalhin sa doctor upang di makunsumisyon
Kumagat na aso’y kailangan ng obserbasyon

Oobra pa kaya mga tandok ng albularyo
Sa nakamamatay na rabis ay matuto
Pag-iwas sa kamandag ng mga aso
Sa beterinaryo, sila’y dalhin dito

Mga alagang aso’y dapat bantayan
Malinis na pagkain, bahay at paliguan
Kanilang kalusugan ay dapat ingatan
Upang sakit na rabis ay maiwasan (9-5-14)


By:  Jinky A. Villareal
Education Program Supervisor II
Department of Education
Region V, Bicol

         I always look up to people who are leaders and their leadership inspire others to work.

         I admire leaders whose personality  are extraordinary. They possess qualities of agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experiences. What does it  mean ? Extraversion is someone who is sociable, talkative and assertive.  Agreeableness is someone who is good-natured, cooperative and trusting. Conscientiousness is someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent and achievement oriented. Emotional stability is one who is calm, enthusiastic and secure. Openness to experience  is someone who is imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual.

         Probe a woman who does not possess qualities of a leader but tends to believe she is a leader. She may not be consider a leader because she does not motivate others to work. She consider huge matters which will put other people to shame. Feeling  rich as she is, she often does not smile thinking that she owns the world with her wealth and she can manipulate people to the best of her interest. She believes of herself only but, guessed others don’t see her  what she believes she is a leader.  How can this woman develop others if she needs to be retooled and learn ethics, good manners and right conduct.  Degrading and humiliating other people are bad traits of a leader. She may ruin and talk ill against someone for her to be pleasant and worth  emulating in the eyes of dignified people.

         Leaders who give considerations to her subordinates are worth rewarded. Considerations  which may motivate them to do their job well. Leaders are guiders too. Guiders that they themselves are the model . They walk their talk.

         Leaders are open minded-open to suggestions, comments and criticism. They  accept if they are at fault.

         Jennilyn is a woman who is not open minded. She always presumed that she does the right thing. Nobody can question her and that what she wants she gets it. She maybe perfectionist in all her dealings.

         The real definitions  of a good leader  and to  exercise leadership can be deduced from her.

         A leader is sociable, talkative and assertive. A good leader can mingle with people in any walks of life. He can be friends with all people regardless of their economic status. He knows how to handle people feelings and analyze their behaviour. A  good leader is a good speaker. He can talk well with sense and even explains well any topic. In decision making he is assertive. Assertive in the sense that he further explains to his subordinates the best solution to every situation. He has that sense  of control over matters in issue not taking things personally, but professionally.

         A leader is good natured, cooperative and trusting . A good natured leader loves somebody , anybody and everybody. He respects living and non-living things. For him God created all these things with purpose. Diverse to each other they do have characteristics  which make them different and in general will contribute to the general welfare. A good leader is so cooperative. He does not command, he cooperates with the consensus of the group but see to it that it creates harmonious relationship with the organization.  A good leader is trusting. Trusting would mean he has that transparency of the transactions. If the leader is trusting he will confide matters relating to difficulties in work. Subordinates are free to confide family or personal problems which may cause  unproductive output.

         A leader is responsible, dependable, persistent and achievement oriented. A leader who has that  authority over his decision. He is accountable of all the actions made by people under her responsibility. A leader is someone whom one can depend on.  Dependent for any assistance, guidance, technical skills, communication skills, operational skill and know how to run the organization. Persistent leaders are leaders who are risk takers. They stick to rules and regulations but sometimes go beyond the  policy for the benefit and welfare of the majority. Achievement oriented leaders are men of action. They manifest the attainment of mission, vision, goals and objectives of the organizations.

         A leader is one who is calm, enthusiastic and secure. A leader must always possess emotional stability. He can resist stress and has tolerance for various situations in the workplace. He is capacitated to give sound advice to people who need help  for them not to panic amidst challenges. A leader is always energetic. He has that tremendous energy to boost others to work and maintain productivity and effectiveness. A leader is secure. He has that confidence that things should goes on smoothly. Normal  as it may, in an organization, conflicts will always rise in a group. But a good leader is secured that he and his subordinates work together solve minor and even major problems.

         Can we be leaders who are like Jesus Christ, willing to sacrifice his personal interest for the sake of his fellowmen? It’s not too late to learn how to be a good leader. A great challenge! (8/27/2014)

The Need for School Principals as Instructional Leaders
by: Ms. Marivic P. Diaz, Ed.D.
Education Program Supervisor I
Ligao City Division

         In the new millennium, the Philippines is aware of the global changes that bring about information to societies and new methods of learning based on a deeper comprehension  of human capacity to think.  "Education has become more global and international in its perspective. The Philippines continue to be more concerned about quality education that will respond to a technologically and information-based global community"  that is present in our setting at the rise of the 21st century. The aim for quality education is supported by the Philippines  government as provided in the 1987 Constitution: "The state shall protect the right of all the citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make  such education accessible to all."

         The challenges brought about by advancement in technology have a great impact in attaining quality education due to lack  of qualified human resources that will lead in adopting these changes. It marks the difference in the direction of leadership styles that should be practiced by school leaders today. For indeed, we have to visualize the future. As Toffler quips:  

         All education springs from image of the future, and all education create images of the future. . . thus all  education whether so intended or not is a preparation for the future. Unless, we understand the future for which we are preparing, we may do tragic damage to those we teach.

         Education then calls for a strong leadership of school administrator like the school principal who would look into the enormous works and functions which can dramatically change or unchanged what happens in a particular school. As a leader in the  21st century, the principal will be far different from the principal of previous generations. He will have to face a different set of problems – the type of instruction and  strategies, the school climate, the curriculum and approaches to be used. These are some of the challenges that a principal should be aware of insofar as attainment of quality education is concerned.

         These concepts as cited by Sarajan 4 were supported by former Department of Education, Culture and Sports Secretary Gloria when he said that:

         In developing our schools for the future programs, the key principle is to empower the school principal as an instructional leader so that together with a team of  competent, committed and conscientious teachers, the potentials for pupil achievement can be brought to a higher level. Responsibility, authority and accountability for school improvement have been pushed down to the lowest level of the school.

         In the new millennium, it is significant to recognize the pivotal role of the school principals as instructional leaders in creating a conducive teaching-learning environment in respective schools. The vital role they play in school effectiveness  is at stake. They manage school resources, encourage and help teachers to be positive role models and facilitators of knowledge as well as create school climate that would help pupils to be the best they can be. But too many administrators are overwhelmed  by the tremendous tasks and lost the ability to lead with vision and pro-active decisions. The very stressful position of learning the job and trying to adopt with these changes in technology destroy their ability to be visionary leaders for the school.

         As instructional leaders, principals have to remember that good schools do not simply happen. Instead, what transpires in good school, functions in a way that which foster the achievement of the school goals. In good schools, people, process and  technology - - the individual parts integrate in such a way that the synergy engendered by the integration of the parts create more energy than the sum of the individual parts does.  Therefore, it is about time for the school principals to act as catalyst - - stimulating people to work together, to question, to strive for learning experiences which work for children. It is because they set the tone for the whole school – their  personality are often reflected in the pupils and teachers. For this reason, school principals as instructional leaders must have personal visions of where the school is going and an image of the school as it should be. They should be critical in considering  all elements that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of the school. As what de Pree said:

         Leaders need an ability to look through a variety of lenses. We need to look through the lens of the follower. We need to look through the lens of a new reality,  through the lens of hard experience and failure, through the lens of unfairness and morality. We need to look hard at our future.

         It is also equally important for principals as instructional leaders to recognize that it is necessary to establish and maintain the conditions for excellence and to enable others to collaborate to achieve excellence. Their role is to encourage collaborative  groupings of teachers to play a more central role in the instructional, leadership of the school. This, then implies that one aspect of successful curriculum and instructional leadership is relying on the expertise of a strong teaching staff. As one principal  so aptly stated, "one of the secrets of success for any principal is to surround himself with the best people he can have. If that is a given in any building that they’re in, then they’re off to the races."  They need people, the kind of people who are willing to share, to take the risks, to work together, who are flexible and who really care about the pupils. . . nothing will happen if principals don’t have these kind of teachers. Sergiovanni  further supported these ideas when he said that:

         As principals engage their teachers in more authentic and deliberate decision-making, they stimulate to design an organizational structure and school culture wherein  teachers function more perfectly as members of a democratic school community and the school better fulfills its broad social purpose.

         Furthermore, school principals need to consider how staff development will provide teachers as forum to discuss what are their learning as they teach, to consider new ideas they are generating or others are supporting. In like manner, there is a  need to evaluate whether held beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and practice should be altered because they are interfering with the teachers’ ability to accept and integrate new ideas or practices. Building upon this base, principals as instructional  leaders, should consider providing teachers’ staff development experiences that offer concrete illustrations which highlighted the reason to engage in new learning, as well as to apply what one is learning in classroom practice. Books asserts that  staff development must afford teachers enough time to practice and experience new strategies as well as to be given a feedback concerning their performance as they struggle to integrate new ideas or practices with their style and mode of operation in  working with pupils. In this way, staff development will influence classroom practice as teachers make new ideas, and practices their own strategies.

         With this scenario, the principal as instructional leader is really the pivotal point within the school who affects the quality of individual teacher instruction, the height of pupils’ achievement and the degree of efficiency in school functioning.  They must be knowledgeable about curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Therefore, Stronge is right when he said that "if principals are to head the call for educational reforms to become instructional leaders it is obvious that they must take on a dramatically different role."

         A principal may have grandiose visions for the school but without the respect of community, pupil and teachers, without the opportunities made accessible by professional organizations or the support of the other friends of education, such visions  may remain beyond reach. Whether schools will be "beacons of brilliance" or "path holes of pestilence" depends largely upon the quality of leadership brought to the situation by the principal as instructional leader. How effective that instructional leadership  will depend in turn, upon the conviction, credibility and competence of the principal and upon the degree to which constraints can be effectively removed or negated."

         As educators, school principals are fully aware of the significant contribution of instructional leadership in the quest for quality education which is the main focus of education management. The government, the community and the school personnel  are meant to provide the best educational opportunities to the learners. In search for effective, efficient and cost saving strategies to attain quality education, the need to have school principals as instructional leaders is of great importance and  must be given due consideration.

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